Moscow/ Москва


Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky.


Moscow is located at 55 o 55’ N latitude and 37 o 37’ east of the Greenwich meridian in the middle of the East European Plain.


More than 9 million people live in Moscow proper and over 2 million more in its suburbs.


Moscow is one of the world’s largest megapolises taking up the area of more than 1000 square kilometers.


Moscow climate is continental. It means that it is hot in the summer time and it is very cold in winter. The amplitude in annual temperature range is 28 C. The cold period starts in October and ends in April. Snow falls in November and stays till March. The snow cover can be 35 sm thick at the end of winter. Wind can blow in any direction in Moscow, but the northwest wind prevails during the warm season and south-west wind is common during the cold season.

From May till October it is warm and nice. The very mild weather comes in June and stay till September. It is not hot but very warm and sunny. Talking about Moscow, one can say that there are not much more sunny days in summer there than in St. Petersburg. Yesterday’s weather in Moscow is today’s weather in St. Petersburg. But if you come to Russia in winter, it would be good to have a cap with an Ear-flaps and Mittens


Moscow’s history covers about two thousand years, it was at first mentioned in writing in 1147, which is the official “birthday” of the city. In 1997, Moscow celebrated its 850th anniversary.Prince Yuri Dolgoruky ordered a wooden fortress to be built on a hill at the confluence of the Mockva and Neglinnaya rivers. With the formation of the Russia centralized state late in the 15th century, Moscow became its capital. Nowadays Moscow is the political, cultural and economic centre of Russia, and the seat of Russian Goverment. It hosts embassies of foreign states, major banks, and educational and cultural institutions. A large number of research institutes and higher education institutions, including the famous Moscow State University, are in the Russian capital. There are 90 active theatres and more than one hundred museums and contemporary art galleries. Moscow also boasts some exceptional cultural treasures, such as the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Diamond Fund and the Armoury Chamber. The collection of French Impressionists in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts is considered to be one of the best in the world, while Moscow's Lenin Russian State Library can only be compared to the USA Library of Congress. The mixture of ancient national traditions and modern exotic features of the city - as well as large business opportunities - makes a visit to present-day Moscow interesting and exciting.


Moscow has 5 major passenger airports and several smaller airports for cargo and civilian aviation, but only two of them are international passenger airports. You will arrive either in Sheremetyevo-2 or Domodedovo. Both of them airports are situated in the suburbs where there is no metro and about 30-45 min of driving far away from the city center in off peak.

Most international flights fly out of Sheremetevo-2 which shares a common runway with Sheremetevo-1 used for domestic flights, some foreign charter flights, and private aviation. SHEREMETEVO-1 (DOMESTIC AIRPORT)  +7 (495) 232-65-65 (flight inquiry office)
 Located 30 km (19 miles) northwest of Moscow on M-10 or Leningradskoe Shosse, about 30 minutes by car from the center.

Public transport:

From “Aerovoczal” (air terminal): by express bus (1 hour)

From “Planernaya” metro station : by bus 517 (45 min), or marshrutka (the route taxi).

From “Rechnoy Voczal” metro station: by bus 551 (45 min), or by marshrutka.

SHEREMETEVO-2 (INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT) +7 (095) 956-46-66 (flight inquiry office)
Flights daily to nearly all European capitals, and major American cities. Departure hall is on the second level.Located 30 Km (19 miles) northwest of Moscow on M-10 or Leningradskoe Shosse, about 30 minutes by car in off peak.

Public transport

From “Aerovoczal” (air terminal): by express bus (1 hour).

From “Planernaya” metro station : by bus 851 (45 min), or marshrutka (the route taxi).

From “Rechnoy Voczal” metro station: by bus 817 (45 min), or by marshrutka.

DOMODEDOVO (INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT) + 7 (495) 795-38-04 (flight inquiry office)

DOMODEDOVO (VIP flights) +7 (495) 795-38-31(flight inquiry office)

Since 1995, the reconstruction of the airport has been going on. It is carried on by the EAST LINE Group. It is supposed to be completed in 2003.

To get to the International “Domodedovo” Airport by taxi you need to use the “Kashirskoye” road - 22 km to the south from Moscow.

Public transport:

The comfortable high-speed Aeroexpress train travels from “Paveletsky”Railway Station(Moscow) to the “Domodedovo” Airport as well as from the “Domodedovo” Airport to “Paveletsky” Railway Station(Moscow). It is a non-stop service with a journey time of 40 minutes.

There are modern Scania-express buses following from the Airport to “Domodedovskaya” metro station (25-30 min).

There is a 24-hour shuttle services between the “Domodedovskaya” metro station and the Airport (25-30 min).

To get to the International “Domodedovo” Airport by car you need to use the modern highway, which is 22 km from the Moscow ring road (a motorway) (to the south from Moscow).

It is important to remember that the free parking services are only free for 15 minutes from the moment of arrival.

For arrivals:

·  from the international flights approach the left part of the parking area;

·  from the Russian flights approach the right part of the parking area.

For departures approach the central part of parking area

Public Transport

Moscow enjoys the ground public transport: buses, trolleybuses, and trams. The cost of one ride in Moscow is 7 rubles when you buy a ticket or pay to the conductor, and 10 rubles when you pay to the driver. The fare does not depend on the number of stops It is convenient and inexpensive to buy a pass for several rides and several types of public transport.Municipal ground transport (bus, trolleybus, tram) operate from 6.00 a.m. to midnight (intervals – 5-10 min.)

Metro is the most comfortable and fastest means of public transport within the city. It consists of 11 lines and almost 160 stations. Radial lines, which cut across the city in most directions, are joined together by a circular line. Each line has its own name and color on the metro map (there are such maps in every car). The name of every station is announced by a loudspeaker in the car. When the train starts the loudspeaker announces the next stop. One ride coasts 8 rubles no matter how long it is and how many transfers you make. Magnetic cards of various values are available at the cashier at every station. You may buy it in the Metro entrance halls.

 Metro operates from 6:00 a.m. to 1:00 a.m. (interval 5-10 min). The last train leaves its final route-point at 1:00a.m., late at night, that’s the time, when passengers are not allowed to make transitions from one line to another. Beware of rush-hours (9 - 10:30 a.m. and 5 - 7:30 p.m.) If planning to go someplace near this time it might be a good idea to ask some local about the time it will likely take you to get to your destination.  When traveling by metro keep in mind - the signs are all in Russian (which is largely the situation with the street names also).

Beware of rush-hours (9 - 10:30 a.m. and 5 - 7:30 p.m.)

To secure your papers, camera, videocamera and personal belongings against pickpocketing do not leave them in your pockets when traveling by public transport.

Commercial bus

The single fare for the fixed-route express buses and express taxis varies from 12 to 20 rubles regardless of the distance. Stops are making upon requests.


Taxis are generally Volga cars, of yellow color, flashing a TAXI light or carrying a chequered lamp mounted both on the car rooftop and car doors. A green light at the windscreen is a signal that the car is vacant. The fare is normally charged by counter but it is not uncommon for the fare to be settled by a previous agreement. Nighttime taxis are more expensive by about 50 percent. It is recommended to negotiate on the driver’s fee beforehand.

You may also hire a car both with a driver and on your own. For this, you should have your passport, driver’s license, some money in cash or credit card. Driver’s minimal age is limited to 25, and the driving experience will be a year or more. Driver’s licenses issued in other countries are valid only if these are international driver’s licenses. 

Your own car

You may decide to travel to Moscow by own car. To secure your car against hijacking, do not leave the keys in the ignition, your papers and personal belongings in the car salon, and do not give a lift to casual people. If you have become a victim of aggression, hijacking, or found yourself in a road accident, do not hesitate to call the police by dialing 02. 


Euro, US dollars and other currencies can be exchanged everywhere. Exchange rates for Euro and US dollars are usually higher than for the other currencies. Banknotes should be as new as possible and in good condition, as notes that are worn, torn, have been written on or are otherwise marked are not accepted. There is no need to bring notes in small denomination. Students should be aware that they will not be able to change any money without a passport (or a passport copy stamped in the Department of Visas and Registrations) in most currency exchange offices.

Please note that despite inflationary tendencies the only accepted form of payment in Russia is the Rouble.SHOPPING:

Most shops open at 9 or 10 a.m. and stay open until 7 or 8 p.m. (9 or 10 p.m. for big department stores). Today there are numerous grocery stores which stay open 24 hours a day.

Department stores in Moscow:

GUM  – Krasnaya Sq.,3  tel. 921-57-63 (open 10a.m.-10p.m. MO-Su) M.”Ploschad Revolutcyy”

Tsum – Petrovka, 2  tel. 292-11-57,  292-76-00 (open 9a.m.-9p.m. MO-SA, 11 a.m.-8p.m.SU) M. “Teatralnaya”

PETROVSKY PASSAGE – Petrovka, 10 tel. 117-70-84 (open 10a.m.-9p.m. MO-SA, 11a.m.-9p.m. SU)

OHOTNY RYAD – Manezshnaya Sq.,1 ( h.2)  tel. 737-84-49 (open 11a.m.-10p.m. MO- SU)


Москва - сердце России, один из самых красивых в мире городов. Ежегодно столицу посещают миллионы туристов, чтобы воочию увидеть Кремль, Красную площадь, Храмы Василия Блаженного и Христа Спасителя, Данилов и Новодевичий монастыри, Большой театр и Третьяковскую галерею.

Государственный герб

5 ноября 1990 г. Правительство РСФСР приняло постановление о разработке Государственного герба и Государственного флага РСФСР.Для организации этой работы была создана Правительственная комиссия. После всестороннего обсуждения комиссия предложила рекомендовать Правительству бело-сине-красный флаг и герб - золотого двуглавого орла на красном поле.Окончательно эти символы были утверждены в 1993 г. Указами Президента Б. Ельцина в качестве Государственных флага и герба. Золотой двуглавый орел на красном поле сохраняет историческую преемственность в цветовой гамме гербов конца XV - XVII века. Рисунок орла восходит к изображениям на памятниках эпохи Петра Великого.Над головами орла изображены три исторические короны Петра Великого, символизирующие в новых условиях суверенитет, как всей Российской Федерации, так и ее частей, субъектов Федерации; в лапах - скипетр и держава, олицетворяющие государственную власть и единое государство; на груди - изображение всадника, поражающего копьем дракона. Это один из древних символов борьбы добра со злом, света с тьмой, Защиты Отечества. Восстановление двуглавого орла как Государственного герба России олицетворяет неразрывность и преемственность отечественной истории. Сегодняшний герб России - это новый герб, но его составные части глубоко традиционны; он и отражает разные этапы отечественной истории, и продолжает их в третьем тысячелетии.

Государственный флаг

Вопрос о принятии новой государственной символики Российской Федерации был поднят после провозглашения независимости России и распада СССР. Указом Президента России от 11 декабря 1993 г. утверждено Положение о флаге РФ. Указ уточнил пропорции флага, они стали равными - 2:3, а не как раньше - 1:2, что более соответствовало старому дореволюционному российскому флагу.

Неофициальное объяснение символики цветов флага таково: белый - мир, чистота, непорочность, совершенство; синий - вера и верность, постоянство; красный - энергия, сила, кровь, пролитая за Отечество.

Время - Московское

Служба точного времени в Москве - 100. В Российской Федерации переводят часы на летнее время в последнее воскресенье марта, а на зимнее - в последнее воскресенье октября. Если Вы хотите узнать разницу во времени Москвы с каким-либо городом, наберите 8-194.

Праздники и нерабочие дни

1-2 января (Новый Год), 7 января (Рождество), 23 февраля (День Защитника Отечества), 8 марта (Международный Женский День), 1-2 мая (Праздник Весны и Труда), 9 мая (День Победы), 12 июня (День Независимости), 7 ноября (День Согласия и Примирения), 12 декабря (День Конституции).


Россия находится в двух частях света - Европе и Азии. Россия граничит с Китаем, Северной Кореей, Казахстаном, Монголией, Грузией и Азербайджаном, Украиной, Финляндией, Беларусией, Эстонией, Латвией и Норвегией. России принадлежат так же острова Новая Земля, Северная Земля, Вайгач, архипелаг Земля Франца-Иосифа, Новосибирские острова, остров Врангеля в Северном Ледовитом океане; Курильские острова и остров Сахалин в Тихом океане. Россия омывается Японским, Охотским и Беринговым, Баренцевым, Карским, Чукотским и Восточно-Сибирским, морем Лаптевых, Балтийским, Финским заливом, Черным и Азовским морями. Россию можно подразделить на три весьма обширных региона: Европейская Россия, занимающая территорию на запад от Уральских гор; Сибирь, протянувшаяся от Урала почти до Тихоокеанского побережья и Дальний Восток России. Территория страны охватывает 11 часовых поясов.


Климат России весьма разнообразен из-за огромной территории страны, хотя на большей части территории он континентальный или умеренно континентальный с длинной холодной зимой и коротким нежарким летом. Среднегодовой уровень осадков на Европейской территории России составляет около 800 мм, однако в южных регионах уменьшается до 400 мм. Что касается температур, то самым холодным регионом считается Сибирь, где в районе города Верхоянск находится "полюс холода" - средняя температура января здесь около -51°С, а в феврале столбик термометра опускается иногда до -68° С.

В Европейской части климат более умеренный, а на черноморском побережье - мягкий. Средняя январская температура в Москве составляет от -16° С до -9° С, средняя июльская температура - от 13° С до 23° С.


В России проживает более 100 народностей, самыми крупными из которых являются русские - 82%, татары - 3,8%, украинцы - 3%, чуваши - 1,2 %.


Официальный язык - русский.


Православные, мусульмане, протестанты, буддисты, иудеи.


Денежная единица - рубль=100 копейкам.

Экстренные телефоны

Пожарная служба - 01, милиция - 02, служба газа - 04, информация и справки - 09, служба спасения - 937-99-11.